Security

YunoHost has been developed to provide the best security without too much complication. Every protocol used in YunoHost is encrypted, only password's hashes are stored and by default each user is able to access their personal directory only.

Two things remain important to note:

  • Installing additional apps can significantly increase the number of potential security flaws. Do not hesitate to get information about security flaws before installing an app, and try to install only apps which will suit your needs.

  • The fact that YunoHost is a well-spread software increases the chances of an attack. If a flaw is discovered, it could potentially affect all the YunoHost instances at once. Keep your system up-to-date to remain safe.

If you need advice, do not hesitate to ask us.

To discuss security flaws, contact the YunoHost security team.


Improve security

If your YunoHost server is used in a critical production environment, or if you want to improve its safety, you may want to follow those good practices.

Attention: Following those instructions requires advanced knowledge of system administration.

SSH authentication via key

By default, the SSH authentication uses the administration password. Deactivating this kind of authentication and replacing it by a key mechanism is advised.

On your client:

ssh-keygen
ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub <username@your_yunohost_server>

If you meet permissions issues, set username as owner of the dir ~/.ssh with chown. Be careful, for security reason this directory should be in mode 700.

Type your admnistration password and your key will be copied on your server.

On your server, edit the SSH configuration file, in order to deactivate the password authentication.

nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

# Modify or add the following line
PasswordAuthentication no

Save and restart the SSH daemon.

systemctl restart ssh

Modify the SSH port

To prevent SSH connection attempts by robots that scan the Internet for any server with SSH enabled, you can change the SSH port.

On your server, edit the ssh configuration file, in order to modify the SSH port.

nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Search the line "Port" and replace port number (by default 22) by another unused number

# What ports, IPs and protocols we listen for
Port 22 # to replace by 9777 for example

Open the port in the firewall (you can use -6 option to deny ipv4 connection)

yunohost firewall allow TCP 9777

Save and restart the SSH daemon. Switch over to the new port by restarting SSH.

systemctl restart ssh

Then restart the iptables firewall and close the old port in iptables.

yunohost firewall reload
yunohost firewall disallow TCP <your_old_ssh_port_number> # port by default 22

You also need to give fail2ban the new SSH port.

To do that you need to create the configuration file my_ssh_port.conf with the command

nano /etc/fail2ban/jail.d/my_ssh_port.conf

and you can then fill it in with

[sshd]
port = <your_ssh_port>

[sshd-ddos]
port = <your_ssh_port>

Finally you have to restart fail2ban in order to apply the new configuration

systemctl restart fail2ban

For the next SSH connections , you need to add the -p option followed by the SSH port number.

Sample:

ssh -p <new_ssh_port_number> admin@<your_yunohost_server>

Change cipher compatibility configuration

The default TLS configuration for services tends to offer good compatibility to support old devices. You can tune this policy for specific services like SSH and NGINX. By default, the NGINX configuration follows the intermediate compatibility recommendation from Mozilla. You can choose to switch to the 'modern' configuration which uses more recent security recommendations, but decreases the compatibility, which may be an issue for your users and visitors using older devices. More details about the compatibility can be found on this page.

Changing the compatibility level is not definitive and can be reverted if it doesn't fit with your environment.

On your server, change the policy for NGINX

sudo yunohost settings set security.nginx.compatibility -v modern

On your server, change the policy for SSH

sudo yunohost settings set security.ssh.compatibility -v modern

Disable the YunoHost API

YunoHost administration is accessible through an HTTP API, served on the 6787 port by default (only on localhost). It can be used to administer a lot of things on your server, so malicious actors can also use it to damage your server. The best thing to do, if you know how to use the command-line interface, is to deactivate the yunohost-api service.

sudo systemctl disable yunohost-api
sudo systemctl stop yunohost-api

Found errors? Think you can improve this documentation? Simply click the Edit link at the top of the page, and then the icon on Github to suggest changes.